Upper Denkyira East Municipal

Published on 0000-00-00

Location and Size

The Upper Denkyira East Municipality is one of the twenty Administrative Districts of the Central Region. The Municipality was established in 2007 by the Legislative Instrument (LI 1877) from the then Upper Denkyira District. It was inaugurated in February 2008. The Administrative Capital is Dunkwa-On-Offin

It lies within latitudes 5º. 30’ and 6º 02’ north of the equator and longitudes 1º W and 2º W of the Greenwich Meridian.  It shares common boundaries with Adansi South in the North, Assin North Municipal in the East and Twiffo Atti-Morkwa District in the West and Upper Denkyira West District in the North-West. The Upper Denkyira East Municipality covers a total land area of 1,020 square kilometers, which is about 10% of total land area of the Central Region.


The Municipality falls within the semi equatorial zone with its characteristics.  The mean annual temperatures are 29ºC on the hottest months and about 24ºC in the coolest months.  There are two rainfall regimes, but the total annual mean rainfall is between 120cm and 200cm.  The first rainy season is from May to June with the heaviest in June, while the second rainy season is from September to Mid-November.  The main dry season is from late-November to February.


The Upper Denkyira East Municipal falls within the semi-deciduous forest zone.  It consists of three layers which do not differ much from the rain forest.  The trees in this forest zone do not shed all their leaves at the same time nor are they of the same species.  Trees of the lower layer and some of the topmost layers stay evergreen throughout the year.  This is due to the generally moist condition of the area.  Due to increasing cocoa and mining activities in the area, especially in the northe part of the Municipality, very little of the original forest remains, and most of what is left are secondary forests.  The forest contains various valuable timber species such as Mahogany and Wawa.

Conditions of the Natural environment

Forestry is one of the important sectors of the Municipality.  The Municipality has three major forest reserves which are all rich in wildlife and lumber.  They include the Benso-Benn, Oppong Manse and Minta Forest Reserves.  They consist of different species of tropical hardwood of high economic-value trees like Odum, Mahogany, Edinam and Wawa.  Lumbering has therefore been an important economic activity in the district.  However, this has been creating environmental problems, as there is no proper management of the forest reserves.  The reserves have been encroached upon by illegal chainsaw operators whose activities, if not checked, will deprive the Municipality of the needed forest resources for development.

Frequent outbreak of bushfires has also contributed to the depletion of forests and other forms of environmental degradation in the Municipality.  Most of the known wildlife such as the deer and monkeys, which were mostly found in the forests, now face extinction.

It is, however, important that the Forestry Services Commission and the Municipality     Assembly initiate a more intensive afforestation programme to preserve some of the important economic tree species to ensure ecological balance in the municipality.  Sustainable haessing of existing forest resources is also to be encouraged

Conditions of the built environment

 Human activities do not only impact on the natural environment as have been portrayed vividly under natural environment discussed above; the impact manifests itself perhaps more prominently in areas where humanity lives.  Most activities of man in settlements he creates as permanent abode more often impacts negatively on the environment.  This aspect of the report highlights on the way of life of the people in terms of their shelter, and living conditions and practices that have direct bearing on the environment.

Relief and Drainage

The area falls under a forest-dissected plateau, rising to about 250m above sea level.  There are pockets of steep sided hills alteating with flat-bottomed valleys.  Dunkwa, the Municipal Capital, has a series of high lands circling it.  The major river in the area is the River Offin.  A number of streams which are tributaries of either the rivers Offin or Pra flow through the district.  Prominent among them are the Subin Ninta, Aponapon and Tuatian in the south, Afiefi and Subin in the north.     


The principal soil found in the area is forest ochrosols.  The colour of these soils range between drown and orange.  The soil is not highly leached as oxysol.  Due to the reduction in the amount of rainfall, the soils contain greater quantities of soil nutrients and are generally alkaline.  From the view point of crop production, they are the best soils in the country.  Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm thrive in the area.  Cocoa covers about 50% of the Municipality entire arable land.  Other crops like cassava, plantain and maize also do well.

Population Size and Growth Rate

The total population of the Municipality is currently 72,810 (2010 PHC Analytical report). Out of the total population, males constitute 49.16 percent, and females, 50.84 percent. The sex ratio for the municipality is 96.67, which means for every 100 females there are approximately 97 males. The current growth rate of 3.1% is higher than the national growth rate of 2.7% per annum.  In order to combat poverty and provide meaningful living for the people of the Municipality, pragmatic measures should be embarked to reduce the growth rate.

District Economy

The Economy of the Municipality can be classified as mainly agrarian. The good nature of the vegetation found in the Municipality encourages and promotes agricultural activities thus helping to generate income from farming activities. About 60%-65% of the working population engages in vibrant farming while 15% engage in small scale mining and 10% could be found in trading and other varied economic activities. Crops such as Cocoa, oil palm, pineapple, plantain, cassava and co are cultivated in the municipality with cocoa being the major cash crop grown in the Municipality.  The municipality is also endowed with valuable timber species such as mahogany and Wawa. Although the timber industry provides venture for income generation, the logging activities occur in both in and off reserves thus having a negative impact on the rainfall patte of the Municipality.

There are light industries such as mineral water production and sawn mills. Small scale mining also contributes to the socio-economic development of the Municipality. Most of the male youth derive their livelihood from mining of mineral deposits in the municipality. These include gold, gravel, sand, clay, kaolin and silica.

Over the past four years, the Municipality has generated an amount of GH¢678,648.39 inteally. Inteally, the municipality has generated an average amount of GH¢169,662.10 annually over the last four years. The river Offin and the Forest reserve belt are the major tourist attraction areas in the municipality. However these sites have not been developed to attract tourist and as result, not much revenue is generated from these due to the low patronage. There is therefore the need to invest in these especially the forest reserve so as to attract tourist into the Municipality.

The Municipality can boast of a total length of 190km of laterite and bitumen roads however, most of the trunk roads are in poor conditions thus making transportation difficult especially during rainy season. This has invariably affected the conveyance of foodstuffs from the growing centers to the markets. The municipality has a railway line which runs through the northe direction to the southe part. Thus linking Kumasi-Dunkwa-Awaso-Takoradi and providing a means of transporting foodstuffs from production areas to marketing areas.

Potential Tourist Sites

1.Opponso Water Fall - Opponso

2. Forest Reserves

S/N Name of  Reserve Area (km²) Location







Bonso Benn

Ben East

Opon Mansi










Twifo Kyebi